By J. Hood
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Extra resources for Audio Electronics
0002 dynes/cm 2) and that the threshold of pain is only +105-110 dB, such extreme S/N values may not be warranted. In cassette recorders, it is unusual for S/N ratios better than 60 dB to be obtained, even with optimally adjusted noise reduction circuitry in use. The last source of noise, contact noise, is caused by a lack of surface smoothness of the tape, or fluctuations in the coating thickness due to surface irregularities in the backing material. It arises because the tape coating completes the magnetic circuit across the gap in the heads during the recording process.
18, the layout of the recording amplifier chain will normally include some noise reduction encoding system (Dolby A or equivalent, and/or Dolby HX, in professional analogue-type tape recorders, or Dolby B or C in domestic machines). The operation of this would be embarrassed by the presence of high-frequency audio components, such as the 19 kHz FM 'pilot tone' used in stereo broadcasts to regenerate the 38 kHz stereo sub-carrier. For this reason, machines equipped with noise reduction facilities will almost invariably also include some low-pass filter system, either as some electronic 'active filter' or a simple LC system, of the forms shown in Fig.
I- ~o. _ o~ _ Fig. - ~' _ov ~ . -P~'~ , ov LC and active low-pass filter systems used to protect noise reduction circuitry from spurious HF inputs. - +8V IKO 2~ Microphone 10/z I 470 '~' - R I 47 R _1_ OV Lineinput - - ~ 0 V ~[ ~ Ou! Record j _ 0V Fig. 29 Single stage microphone input amplifier by Sony (TCK-81). 039 _ 8K2 3mH 22. 1K0 -9~ 10mH 'Bias trap' 3K3 10K -- ~1 -- . ,, CR FE I 120 P : T ~~176 150 (Blas I ~JJustment) [ Record head 0"~ Bias oscillator Fig. 30 Record output stage, from Pioneer, showing bias trap and LC equalisation components (CT4141-A).