By Shutsung Liao, John M. Kokontis, Chih-Pin Chuu, Richard A. Hiipakka (auth.), James Mohler, Donald Tindall (eds.)
This e-book serves as a tribute to the paintings of the numerous investigators who've tried to appreciate the function of the androgen receptor (AR) within the improvement and development of prostate melanoma. the connection among prostate melanoma and androgen prestige was once at the start liked within the past due 1800’s, after which expertise reawakened within the 1940’s through the reviews of Charles Huggins and associates, for which the Nobel prize was once provided in 1966.
The goal of this booklet is to supply an up-to-the-minute evaluation of the molecular and mobile features of androgen motion in prostate melanoma. It comprises an summary of the position of androgens within the improvement of the traditional prostate and development of prostate melanoma. Our knowing of androgen metabolism and efforts to focus on androgen metabolism within the prevention and therapy of prostate melanoma is gifted. Androgen receptor structure/function relationships and the position of co-regulators are outlined. Ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor and the position of the androgen receptor in the course of development to the castration recurrent phenotype are mentioned. Androgen-regulated genes are elucidated and their roles in the course of prostate melanoma development are outlined. ultimately, the androgen receptor is gifted as a achievable goal for novel remedies. jointly, those studies should still supply the reader a accomplished conceptual framework of androgen motion in prostate cancer.
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Extra resources for Androgen Action in Prostate Cancer
A more recent phase I study demonstrated no adverse effects of testosterone replacement administered by skin patch or topical gel in patients with castration-recurrent and metastatic disease (Morris et al. 2004). Phase II studies are planned. A recently published case study has findings similar to our animal studies and supports the use of testosterone to treat certain prostate cancer patients (Mathew 2008). In this case study, a prostate cancer patient had undergone radical prostatectomy and received LH-RH therapy.
Hiipakka, R. , Kokontis, J. -Y. and Liao, S. 2006. Inhibition of tumor growth and progression of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in athymic mice by androgen and liver X receptor agonist. Cancer Res. 66:6482–6486. Chuu, C. , Kokontis, J. , Hiipakka, R. A. and Liao, S. 2007. Modulation of liver X receptor signaling as novel therapy for prostate cancer. J. Biomed. Sci. 14:543–553. Androgen Action and Modulation of Prostate and Prostate Cancer Growth 45 Clever, U. and Karlson, P. 1960. [Induction of puff changes in the salivary gland chromosomes of Chironomus tentans by ecdysone].
In particular, the DNA encoding the DNA-binding domain of these receptors was very similar. Degenerate oligonucleotide probes that were complementary to the DNA-binding domain of these receptors were generated and used to probe cDNA libraries from the testis and prostate. Several unique cDNAs were isolated. After sequencing various clones, one composite cDNA contained an open reading frame encoding a protein that was homologous to other steroid receptors (Chang et al. 1988a, b). When RNA was transcribed from this cDNA and translated it in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the product bound [3H]R1881 and the sedimentation rate of the labeled complex was shifted by an IgG fraction from the serum of a prostate cancer patient known to have antibodies against AR.