By Herbert W. Meyer
Written in an effort to be understood via the non-technical reader who's excited about the starting place of all of the electric and electromagnetic units that encompass him, this background additionally offers a handy compendium of knowledge for these conversant in and magnetic fields. The ebook strikes alongside at a speedy velocity, because it needs to whether it is to hide the big proliferation of advancements that experience happened over the past hundred years or so. the writer has struck a potential stability among the human facet of his tale, introducing these biographical info that aid develop it, and its technical facet, explaining theories and "how issues paintings" the place this turns out applicable. He additionally achieves a stability in recounting the invention of uncomplicated clinical ideas and their technological applications—the myriad of units and innovations that make the most of power and data in electromagnetic shape. certainly, one of many very important subject matters of the publication is the shut and reciprocal courting among technology and expertise, among thought and perform. prior to nearly 1840, the only medical investigations of electric and magnetic phenomena have been mostly advert hoc and observational, and primarily no expertise according to them existed. Afterwards, the medical explorations turned extra programmatic and mathematical, and technical functions and innovations started to be produced in nice abundance. In go back, this expertise paid its debt to natural technology by way of offering it with a sequence of measuring tools and different study units that allowed it to boost in parallel. even supposing this publication studies the early discoveries, from the magnetic lodestone and electrostatic amber of antiquity to Galvani's frog's legs and Franklin's kite-and-key of the 1700s, its significant emphasis is at the post-1840 advancements, because the following bankruptcy titles will determine: Early Discoveries—Electrical Machines and Experiments with Static Electricity—Voltaic electrical energy, Electrochemistry, Electromagnetism, Galvanometers, Ampere, Biot and Savart, Ohm—Faraday and Henry—Direct present Dynamos and Motors—Improvements in Batteries, Electrostatic Machines, and different Older Devices—Electrical tools, legislation, and Definitions of Units—The electrical Telegraph—The Atlantic Cable—The Telephone—Electric Lighting—Alternating Currents—Electric Traction—Electromagnetic Waves, Radio, Facsimile, and Television—Microwaves, Radar, Radio Relay, Coaxial Cable, Computers—Plasmas, Masers, Lasers, gas Cells, Piezoelectric Crystals, Transistors—X-Rays, Radioactivity, Photoelectric impact, constitution of the Atom, Spectra.
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Additional info for A History of Electricity and Magnetism
It was now under investigation by Franklin, Wilke, Canton, and Aepinus. Experiments had shown that when a charged body was brought near an insulated conductor, a charge similar in kind to that of the charged body appeared at the remote end of the insulated conductor (repelled charge), and that if this charge were led off to ground and the original charged body removed, there remained on the insulated conductor a charge (bound charge) of sign opposite to the original one. Stephen Gray had in part discovered similar effects with his packthread line but had not observed the relationship of kinds, nor that there were two distinct induced charges.
These elements had, however, already been isolated by others. In 1810, Davy for the first time exhibited the carbon electric arc, using the battery as a source of electricity. 46 Chapter Three ELECTROMAGNETISM Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851) was professor of natural philosophy at the University of Copenhagen. As early as 1812 he expressed the helief that magnetic fields were associated with electricity, but this statement was by no means a new doctrine, for electricity and magnetism had long been considered as having something in common, probably as far back as Thales.
Among other things he decomposed water with curent from h i s cetls. Nspoleon recognized t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f Volta’s diseovery and awarded him a gotd medal, the cuxs of the Legion of Honor, and a prix of 6000 francs. EVOLUTION OF THE BATTERY AND DISCOVERIES WITH ELECTRIC CURRENTS In 1801 Johann Ritter developed the idea of a series of met& from which the relative electrical pressures produced by various pairs when immersed in a sait or acid solution could be determined. Volta conceived the same idea independentty at a later date, and the series came to be known as Volta’s etectromotive series.