By Muhammad Ali Mazidi
This publication makes use of a step by step method of train the basics of meeting language programming and interfacing of the 8051 microcontroller. It makes use of many examples to elucidate options. basic, concise examples are applied to teach what motion each one guideline plays, then a pattern is equipped to teach its program. this article offers a accomplished realizing of the interior association of the 8051 registers and assets in a fashion that sheds the scholars worry of meeting language. no matter if scholars develop into designers of stand-alone platforms or advanced embedded platforms, they're going to locate this article an invaluable source.
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Extra info for 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems, The
Internal Working of Computers ¾ (cont’) From memory location 1402H it fetches code 04H After decoding, the CPU knows that it must add to the contents of register A the byte sitting at the next address (1403) After the CPU brings the value (42H), it provides the contents of register A along with this value to the ALU to perform the addition It then takes the result of the addition from the ALU’s output and puts it in register A The program counter becomes 1404, the address of the next instruction ...
HANEL Address 1404H is put on the address bus and the code is fetched into the CPU, decoded, and executed The contents of address 1406 are fetched in and executed This HALT instruction tells the CPU to stop incrementing the program counter and asking for the next instruction Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 37 8051 MICROCONTROLLERS The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems: Using Assembly and C Mazidi, Mazidi and McKinlay Chung-Ping Young 楊中平 Home Automation, Networking, and Entertainment Lab Dept.
GeneralPurpose Microprocessor (cont’) Generalpurpose MicroProcessor Data bus RAM Timer Serial COM Port CPU Address bus Microcontroller CPU I/O HANEL ROM I/O Port RAM ROM Timer Serial COM Port Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 4 MICROCONTROLLERS AND EMBEDDED PROCESSORS Microcontroller vs. GeneralPurpose Microprocessor General-purpose microprocessors ¾ ¾ ¾ Microcontroller ¾ (cont’) ¾ HANEL Must add RAM, ROM, I/O ports, and timers externally to make them functional Make the system bulkier and much more expensive Have the advantage of versatility on the amount of RAM, ROM, and I/O ports The fixed amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, and number of I/O ports makes them ideal for many applications in which cost and space are critical In many applications, the space it takes, the power it consumes, and the price per unit are much more critical considerations than the computing power Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 5 MICROCONTROLLERS AND EMBEDDED PROCESSORS Microcontrollers for Embedded Systems An embedded product uses a microprocessor (or microcontroller) to do one task and one task only ¾ There is only one application software that is typically burned into ROM A PC, in contrast with the embedded system, can be used for any number of applications ¾ ¾ It has RAM memory and an operating system that loads a variety of applications into RAM and lets the CPU run them A PC contains or is connected to various embedded products Each one peripheral has a microcontroller inside it that performs only one task HANEL Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 6 MICROCONTROLLERS AND EMBEDDED PROCESSORS Microcontrollers for Embedded Systems Home ¾ Office ¾ (cont’) Telephones, computers, security systems, fax machines, microwave, copier, laser printer, color printer, paging Auto ¾ HANEL Appliances, intercom, telephones, security systems, garage door openers, answering machines, fax machines, home computers, TVs, cable TV tuner, VCR, camcorder, remote controls, video games, cellular phones, musical instruments, sewing machines, lighting control, paging, camera, pinball machines, toys, exercise equipment Trip computer, engine control, air bag, ABS, instrumentation, security system, transmission control, entertainment, climate control, cellular phone, keyless entry Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 7 MICROCONTROLLERS AND EMBEDDED PROCESSORS x86 PC Embedded Applications ¾ HANEL Many manufactures of general-purpose microprocessors have targeted their microprocessor for the high end of the embedded market There are times that a microcontroller is inadequate for the task When a company targets a generalpurpose microprocessor for the embedded market, it optimizes the processor used for embedded systems Very often the terms embedded processor and microcontroller are used interchangeably Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 8 MICROCONTROLLERS AND EMBEDDED PROCESSORS x86 PC Embedded Applications (cont’) One of the most critical needs of an embedded system is to decrease power consumption and space In high-performance embedded processors, the trend is to integrate more functions on the CPU chip and let designer decide which features he/she wants to use In many cases using x86 PCs for the high-end embedded applications ¾ Saves money and shortens development time A vast library of software already written Windows is a widely used and well understood platform HANEL Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 9 MICROCONTROLLERS AND EMBEDDED PROCESSORS Choosing a Microcontroller HANEL 8-bit microcontrollers ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Motorola’s 6811 Intel’s 8051 Zilog’s Z8 Microchip’s PIC There are also 16-bit and 32-bit microcontrollers made by various chip makers Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 10 MICROCONTROLLERS AND EMBEDDED PROCESSORS Criteria for Choosing a Microcontroller Meeting the computing needs of the task at hand efficiently and cost effectively ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ HANEL Speed Packaging Power consumption The amount of RAM and ROM on chip The number of I/O pins and the timer on chip How easy to upgrade to higherperformance or lower power-consumption versions Cost per unit Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 11 MICROCONTROLLERS AND EMBEDDED PROCESSORS Availability of software development tools, such as compilers, assemblers, and debuggers Wide availability and reliable sources of the microcontroller ¾ Criteria for Choosing a Microcontroller (cont’) HANEL The 8051 family has the largest number of diversified (multiple source) suppliers Intel (original) Atmel Philips/Signetics AMD Infineon (formerly Siemens) Matra Dallas Semiconductor/Maxim Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 12 OVERVIEW OF 8051 FAMILY ¾ The 8051 is an 8-bit processor The CPU can work on only 8 bits of data at a time 8051 Microcontroller ¾ The 8051 had HANEL Intel introduced 8051, referred as MCS51, in 1981 128 bytes of RAM 4K bytes of on-chip ROM Two timers One serial port Four I/O ports, each 8 bits wide 6 interrupt sources The 8051 became widely popular after allowing other manufactures to make and market any flavor of the 8051, but remaining code-compatible Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 13 8051 Microcontroller (cont’) Interrupt Control On-chip ROM for code On-chip RAM Etc.