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Extra info for 53.Robotics and Automation
Consider a binary image containing a single white blob. Imagine that a fire is lit at all points around the blob’s outer edge and the edges of any holes it may contain. The fire will burn inwards, until at some in- 671 stant, advancing fire lines meet. When this occurs, the fire becomes extinguished locally. An output image is generated and is shaded in proportion to the time it takes for the fire to reach each point. Background pixels are mapped to black. Skeleton. Consider a single white blob and a ‘‘bug’’ that walks around the blob’s outer edge, removing one pixel at a time.
Those which utilize magnetic force or vacuum suction force do not require fingers which may be added to prevent the object from falling off. Here we focus on grippers which have fingers (typically two or three). When a robot hand is designed or selected, the following points need to be considered: • • • • • Gripping force and workpiece weight Robot load capacity Power source Work space Environmental conditions These five points are discussed in detail here. 1. Relation of gripping force and workpiece weight: It is suggested that the gripping force be about 5 to 20 times the workpiece weight.
In Japan particularly, these three large production processes account for approximately 70% of all processes in which robots are used. Analysis of specific tasks performed by the robots in these three processes tells us what kinds of task elements are required of manipulators. Two kinds of tasks appear commonly, picking and placing objects and tracing object surfaces. Although robots are used in processes other than these three, a careful task analysis reveals that many of them consist of a series of the two previously mentioned task elements.